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讲解Python的Scrapy爬虫框架使用代理进行采集的方法

来源:CDA数据分析师 | 发布时间:2018-02-13 08:55:14

讲解Python的Scrapy爬虫框架使用代理进行采集的方法

这篇文章主要介绍了讲解Python的Scrapy爬虫框架使用代理进行采集的方法,并介绍了随机使用预先设好的user-agent来进行爬取的用法,需要的朋友可以参考下

1.在Scrapy工程下新建“middlewares.py”    
# Importing base64 library because we'll need it ONLY in case if the proxy we are going to use requires authentication
import base64
 
# Start your middleware class
class ProxyMiddleware(object):
 # overwrite process request
 def process_request(self, request, spider):
  # Set the location of the proxy
  request.meta['proxy'] = "http://YOUR_PROXY_IP:PORT"
 
  # Use the following lines if your proxy requires authentication
  proxy_user_pass = "USERNAME:PASSWORD"
  # setup basic authentication for the proxy
  encoded_user_pass = base64.encodestring(proxy_user_pass)
  request.headers['Proxy-Authorization'] = 'Basic ' + encoded_user_pass

2.在项目配置文件里(./project_name/settings.py)添加
    
DOWNLOADER_MIDDLEWARES = {
 'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.httpproxy.HttpProxyMiddleware': 110,
 'project_name.middlewares.ProxyMiddleware': 100,
}

只要两步,现在请求就是通过代理的了。测试一下^_^    
from scrapy.spider import BaseSpider
from scrapy.contrib.spiders import CrawlSpider, Rule
from scrapy.http import Request
 
class TestSpider(CrawlSpider):
 name = "test"
 domain_name = "whatismyip.com"
 # The following url is subject to change, you can get the last updated one from here :
 # http://www.whatismyip.com/faq/automation.asp
 start_urls = ["http://xujian.info"]
 
 def parse(self, response):
  open('test.html', 'wb').write(response.body)

3.使用随机user-agent

默认情况下scrapy采集时只能使用一种user-agent,这样容易被网站屏蔽,下面的代码可以从预先定义的user- agent的列表中随机选择一个来采集不同的页面

在settings.py中添加以下代码
    
DOWNLOADER_MIDDLEWARES = {
  'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.useragent.UserAgentMiddleware' : None,
  'Crawler.comm.rotate_useragent.RotateUserAgentMiddleware' :400
 }

注意: Crawler; 是你项目的名字 ,通过它是一个目录的名称 下面是蜘蛛的代码
    
#!/usr/bin/python
#-*-coding:utf-8-*-
 
import random
from scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.useragent import UserAgentMiddleware
 
class RotateUserAgentMiddleware(UserAgentMiddleware):
 def __init__(self, user_agent=''):
  self.user_agent = user_agent
 
 def process_request(self, request, spider):
  #这句话用于随机选择user-agent
  ua = random.choice(self.user_agent_list)
  if ua:
   request.headers.setdefault('User-Agent', ua)
 
 #the default user_agent_list composes chrome,I E,firefox,Mozilla,opera,netscape
 #for more user agent strings,you can find it in http://www.useragentstring.com/pages/useragentstring.php
 user_agent_list = [\
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.1 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/22.0.1207.1 Safari/537.1"\
  "Mozilla/5.0 (X11; CrOS i686 2268.111.0) AppleWebKit/536.11 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/20.0.1132.57 Safari/536.11",\
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/536.6 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/20.0.1092.0 Safari/536.6",\
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2) AppleWebKit/536.6 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/20.0.1090.0 Safari/536.6",\
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.1 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.77.34.5 Safari/537.1",\
  "Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64) AppleWebKit/536.5 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1084.9 Safari/536.5",\
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.0) AppleWebKit/536.5 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1084.36 Safari/536.5",\
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1063.0 Safari/536.3",\
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 5.1) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1063.0 Safari/536.3",\
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_8_0) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1063.0 Safari/536.3",\
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1062.0 Safari/536.3",\
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1062.0 Safari/536.3",\
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1061.1 Safari/536.3",\
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1061.1 Safari/536.3",\
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1061.1 Safari/536.3",\
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1061.0 Safari/536.3",\
  "Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64) AppleWebKit/535.24 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1055.1 Safari/535.24",\
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2; WOW64) AppleWebKit/535.24 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1055.1 Safari/535.24"
  ]


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